Water and Sanitation
Mar 15, 2017
Mr. Lionel Michael
Water and Sanitation

Waterborne Disease in Developing Countries

-Water sources are often highly contaminated and used with little or no treatment

-Transport and storage of water in the home may result in degradation of water quality

-Faecal pathogens are transmitted by multiple routes due to poor sanitation, food hygiene and personal hygiene.

-In many areas, both inadequate water quality and water quantity contribute to waterborne disease

-Traditional bacterial indicators of microbiological water quality may not be appropriate for tropical source waters because of higher temperature and nutrient loads.           

Sources of water




Rainwater harvesting

Waterborne Diseases

Water-borne Diseases

Diseases transmitted through contaminated water.

Types of water affected:

Drinking Water

Recreational Water

       -        Beaches

       -        Spas

       -        Swimming Pools

Health Outcomes from Waterborne Pathogens

GI tract infections

Infections in other organs or systemic illness: hepatitis, conjunctivitis, aseptic meningitis, respiratory infections, hemolytic uremic syndrome, myocarditis, diabetes, peptic and duodenal ulcers, stomach cancer, reactive arthritis, Guillain-Barre syndrome


Prevention and Control

Bradley’s classification of water-related diseases

Control strategy depends on transmission route

In contrast to many interventions that target a single disease, improved water supplies can prevent infections from a variety of pathogens simultaneously.

Individual Treatment

Use Bleach:

4 drops or ¼ teaspoon of bleach to 1 gal water

4 Tablespoons to 400 – 500 gals of water Or

Boil Water

Allow it to boil for 5 – 7 minutes

            after the first bubbles appear

 Chlorine compounds






Ultraviolet disinfection

Point of use treatment

            -  filters


Bacteria is picked up by touching all kinds of surfaces (i.e.door knobs, raw foods, and garbage bins)

Contamination can be prevented by proper hand washing & sanitizing, and the use of gloves