Water and Sanitation

Water and Sanitation
Mar 15, 2017
Mr. Lionel Michael
Water and Sanitation

Waterborne Disease in Developing Countries

-Water sources are often highly contaminated and used with little or no treatment

-Transport and storage of water in the home may result in degradation of water quality

-Faecal pathogens are transmitted by multiple routes due to poor sanitation, food hygiene and personal hygiene.

-In many areas, both inadequate water quality and water quantity contribute to waterborne disease

-Traditional bacterial indicators of microbiological water quality may not be appropriate for tropical source waters because of higher temperature and nutrient loads.           

Sources of water

Surface

Ground

Desalination

Rainwater harvesting

Waterborne Diseases

Water-borne Diseases

Diseases transmitted through contaminated water.

Types of water affected:

Drinking Water

Recreational Water

       -        Beaches

       -        Spas

       -        Swimming Pools

Health Outcomes from Waterborne Pathogens

GI tract infections

Infections in other organs or systemic illness: hepatitis, conjunctivitis, aseptic meningitis, respiratory infections, hemolytic uremic syndrome, myocarditis, diabetes, peptic and duodenal ulcers, stomach cancer, reactive arthritis, Guillain-Barre syndrome

Toxins

Prevention and Control

Bradley’s classification of water-related diseases

Control strategy depends on transmission route

In contrast to many interventions that target a single disease, improved water supplies can prevent infections from a variety of pathogens simultaneously.

Individual Treatment

Use Bleach:

4 drops or ¼ teaspoon of bleach to 1 gal water

4 Tablespoons to 400 – 500 gals of water Or

Boil Water

Allow it to boil for 5 – 7 minutes

            after the first bubbles appear

 Chlorine compounds

Gas

Liquid

Powder

Tablets

Ozone

Ultraviolet disinfection

Point of use treatment

            -  filters

 HandWashing

Bacteria is picked up by touching all kinds of surfaces (i.e.door knobs, raw foods, and garbage bins)

Contamination can be prevented by proper hand washing & sanitizing, and the use of gloves